States often prohibited their citizens from leaving the country. From the 17th to the 19th century, China and Japan, trying to resist European expansion, pursued a policy of self-isolation: at that time, the Japanese, even accidentally finding himself outside the country, could not return to his homeland under pain of the death penalty. In fascist Italy, exit visas were valid from 1922 to 1943 (during the rule of Benito Mussolini), in Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 (during the period of absolute power of Adolf Hitler). In the USSR, and later in the RSFSR, exit visas were required until January 1, 1993. More recently, in 2006, exit visas were canceled in Turkmenistan – immediately after the death of Turkmenbashi Saparmurat Niyazov.
– As in the former socialist countries, opposition activity is prohibited in Cuba and there is no access to alternative information. Opponents of the regime, accused of financing from abroad and contacts with emigrant circles, are sentenced to long terms of imprisonment (with the mediation of the Catholic Church and the Spanish government, most of those arrested during the so-called “black spring” were able to leave the country). There are also hunger strikes of dissidents, including fatal ones. Mass emigration is also an indicator of population dissatisfaction, ”notes Zbignev Vladislavovich Ivanovsky, a leading researcher at the Institute of Latin America of the RAS.
Despite the characteristic problems with human rights and significant economic difficulties, the Cuban state, in full accordance with the principles of socialism, puts the well-being of the population.